# Study Notes: Bond Yields and Return Calculations

Chapter 11. Bond Yields and Return Calculations Study Notes cover the following learning objectives:

* Distinguish between gross and net realized returns, and calculate the realized return for a bond over a holding period including reinvestments.
* Define and interpret the spread of a bond, and explain how a spread is derived from a bond price and a term structure of rates.
* Define, interpret, and apply a bond’s yield-to-maturity (YTM) to bond pricing.
* Compute a bond’s YTM given a bond structure and price.
* Calculate the price of an annuity and a perpetuity.
* Explain the relationship between spot rates and YTM.
* Define the coupon effect and explain the relationship between coupon rate, YTM, and bond prices.
* Explain the decomposition of the profit and loss (P&L) for a bond position or portfolio into separate factors including carry roll-down, rate change, and spread change effects.
* Explain the following four common assumptions in carry roll-down scenarios: realized forwards, unchanged term structure, unchanged yields, and realized expectations of short-term rates; and calculate carry roll down under these assumptions.

After reviewing the notes, you will be able to apply what you learned with practice questions.