Hi @bradnhopkins These highly durable (and highly testable) volatility concepts are currently in VRM Topic 4 (Chapter 3). You make a good point that they are time series. However, with respect to the FRM, they've never been under time series and have always been introduced in Topic 2 then (somewhat) refreshed in Topic 4. In my strongly-felt opinion, EWMA and GARCH need to be restored to T2. Chapter 12. GARP's new material contains many omissions in their first version. It's just wrong to neglect the introduction of EWMA and GARCH, which have been tested every single year, in T2 in the Chapter specifically focused on the Quantitative Analysis of "Measuring Returns, Volatility, and Correlation." Semi-related discussion here at https://www.bionicturtle.com/forum/...ate-normal-distribution-hull.10189/post-82718 In any case, all three of these questions remain highly relevant. I hope that's helpful.