Capital Adequacy

Capital Adequacy is a Balance Sheet Ratio Financial analysts analyze company performance with different sets of ratios; e.g., earnings per share, return on equity. As a ratio, capital adequacy is just a special solvency ratio, not greatly unlike the classic debt-to-equity ratio. But capital adequacy connotes a financial institution's capital, so it’s really a bank-specific... Read More

Binomial Tree

Introduction The Financial Risk Manager (FRM) introduces binomial trees by applying them to value derivatives for two asset classes, equities and bonds. For stock options, the text is John Hull’s Options, Futures and Derivatives; for bonds, the text is Bruce Tuckman’s Fixed Income Securities. Both are excellent and have been assigned in the syllabus for... Read More

Spot Rates

Spot prices are a basic building block in finance, but they are tricky when the commodity is money. When the commodity is money, spot prices are called spot rates (a.k.a., spot interest rate). A spot price is simply the market's current price to buy or sell a commodity for immediate delivery. Spot prices are so... Read More